Embolic-Events
Embolic Events

Embolic events contribute significantly to patient morbidity and mortality, with VTE specifically being the second most common medical complication in the US. Many signs and symptoms can mimic those of deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, or, as in the case of air embolism, incidence is relatively rare but has significant consequences. Our APSS Blueprints provide healthcare organizations with practical, evidence-based checklists and protocols to facilitate early recognition, prevention, and treatment.

Patient Stories

Statistics

25-30% of healthy adults have patent foramen ovale (PFO), and most of these are asymptomatic and undiagnosed1
1.

Hagen, P.T., Scholz, D.G., Edwards, W.D. (1984). Incidence and Size of Patent Foramen Ovale During the First 10 Decades of Life: An Autopsy Study of 965 Normal Hearts. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 59(1), 17–20. doi:10.1016/s0025-6196(12)60336-x

The estimated number of annual VTE cases is 3.9 million in high-income countries and 6.0 million in low- and middle-income countries2
2.

Raskob, G. E. et al. (2014). A major contributor to global disease burden. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 34, 2363-2371

Recent mortality rates due to arterial emboli range from 4 to 15%.3
3.

Lyaker, M. R., Tulman, D. B., Dimitrova, G. T., Pin, R. H., & Papadimos, T. J. (2013). Arterial embolism. International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science, 3(1), 77–87. http://doi.org/10.4103/2229-5151.109429

Aortic atherosclerotic plaque is one of the leading sources of embolic disease.4
4.

Kronzon I., Tunick P.A. Aortic atherosclerotic disease and stroke. Circulation. 2006;114:63–75.

Complications of arterial embolism are a leading cause of disability and death in the United States.5
5.

Lyaker, M. R., Tulman, D. B., Dimitrova, G. T., Pin, R. H., & Papadimos, T. J. (2013). Arterial embolism. International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science, 3(1), 77–87. http://doi.org/10.4103/2229-5151.109429

The cost for each occurrence is an average of $66,007 per air embolism.6
6.

Rowland, Hudson T. (2009) “When Never Happens: Implications of Medicare’s Never-Event Policy,” Marquette Elder’s Advisor: Vol. 10: Iss. 2, Article 7.

The mortality rate of central line related air emboli death ranges from 23% to 50%.7
7.

Feil, M. (2015). Preventing Central Line Air Embolism. AJN, American Journal of Nursing,115(6), 64-69. doi:10.1097/01.naj.0000466327.76934.a0

The incidence of massive air embolism in cardiac bypass procedures is between 0.003% and 0.007% with 50% having adverse outcomes.8
8.

Hammon, J.W., Hines, M.H. Extracorporeal Circulation. In: Cohn LH, editor. Cardiac Surgery in the Adult. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.

In Europe, there are 544,000 VTE-related deaths every year.9
9.

Heit, JA. Poster 68 presented at: American Society of Hematology, 47th Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, December 10-13, 2005.

In the United States, there are 100,000 – 300,000 VTE-related deaths every year.10
10.

Office of the Surgeon General (US. (2008). The Surgeon General’s call to action to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

Every year, there are approximately 10 million cases of VTE worldwide.11
11.

Jha, A. K., Larizgoitia, I., Audera-Lopez, C., Prasopa-Plaizier, N., Waters, H., & Bates, D. W. (2013). The global burden of unsafe medical care: Analytic modelling of observational studies. BMJ Quality & Safety, 22(10), 809-815.

In the U.S. and Europe, VTE-related events kill more people than AIDS, breast cancer, prostate cancer and motor vehicle crashes combined.12
12.

Cohen AT, Agnelli G, Anderson FA, et al. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Europe. Thromb Haemost. 2007;98:756-764.

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