Medical error statistics are alarming, yet they provide us with the sense of urgency we need – to collectively work together to reduce errors and eliminate preventable deaths from taking place in our hospitals. Take a look at the statistics we’ve collected, share them amongst your network, and most importantly, learn about the considerable levels of error that exist in acute care so that we can turn these harrowing facts into opportunities for effective change and patient safety improvement together.


Filter By Challenge
The risk of maternal death is 4 times higher in cesarean births, while amniotic fluid embolism is 2-3 times more likely. Other serious complications occur in cesarean birth at an overall rate that is 3 times higher than vaginal birth (2.7% vs. 0.9%)
.

Liu, S., Liston, R. M., Joseph, K., & Heaman, M. (2007). Maternal Mortality and Severe Morbidity Associated with Low-risk Planned Cesarean Delivery Versus Planned Vaginal Delivery at Term. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 176(4), 455-460

Approximately 1.2 million c-sections are performed annually1
1.

Centers for Disease Control. (2019). Cesarean Delivery Rate by State. Retrieved from: 

https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/pressroom/sosmap/cesarean_births/cesareans.htm

Studies show that between 50-70% of deaths due to severe preeclampsia are preventable2
2.

Aukes, A. M., Wessel, I., Dubois, A. M., Aarnoudse, J. G., & Zeeman, G. G. (2007). Self-Reported Cognitive Functioning in Formerly Eclamptic Women. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 197(4)

According to the most recent mortality data reported to the CDC in 2011-2012, PPH caused 11% of pregnancy-related deaths in the U.S.3
3.

Berg, C., Atrash, H., Koonin, L., Tucker, M. (1996). Pregnancy-related Mortality in the United States 1987-1990. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 88(2)

In developing countries with high rates of maternal mortality, nearly one-fourth of deaths are attributable to PPH4
4.

AbouZahr, C. (1998). Antepartum and Postpartum Hemorrhage. Retrieved from http://www.scirp.org/(S(vtj3fa45qm1ean45vvffcz55))/reference/ReferencesPapers.aspx? ReferenceID=1569986

Unnecessary C-sections also pose long-term health risks including subsequent uterine scar rupture, abnormal placentation, increased risk of hemorrhage, and hysterectomy where there is an exponential increase in such complications with the number of prior cesareans.5
5.

Tihtonen, K. and Nyberg, R. (2014). [Long-term effects of uterine cesarean section scar]. – PubMed – NCBI. [online] Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24730196.

In the United States, one-third of patients give birth surgically and international experts have identified this high cesarean rate as a significant maternal health safety issue. Short term complications from this form of invasive surgery include blood loss, infection, and venous thrombosis with the small but real risk of maternal mortality.6
6.

Lothian, J. (2014). Safe Prevention of the Primary Cesarean Delivery: ACOG and SMFM Change the Game. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 23(3), pp.115-118.

Internationally, C-sections are on the rise ranging from an average of 40.5% in Latin America/Caribbean area to 7.3% in Africa7
7.

Betran, A. (2016). The Increasing Trend in Caesarean Section Rates: Global, Regional and National Estimates: 1990-2014. (published 5 February 2016).

Harvard’s Shah points out that C-sections are major surgery, with all of the risks of any hospital procedure. “Unnecessary C-sections may be responsible for up to 20,000 major surgical complications a year, including everything from sepsis [a life-threatening complication of certain infections] to hemorrhage to organ injury,” he says.8
8.

Haelle, Tara. (2017). Your Biggest C-Section Risk May Be Your Hospital.

In one day at 63 institutions, 24% of hospitalized infants and children needed NGTs, including an orogastric (OG) (tube placed through the mouth), nasogastric (NG), or transpyloric (tube placed in the upper small bowel) tube9
9.

Lyman, B., Kemper, C., Northington, L. D., Yaworski, J. A., Wilder, K., Moore, C., … Irving, S. (2015). Use of Temporary Enteral Access Devices in Hospitalized Neonatal and Pediatric Patients in the United States. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 40(4), 574–580. doi:10.1177/0148607114567712

In infants, 59% NGTs are misplaced, with most tubes misplaced in the esophagus10
10.

October, T. W. and Hardart, G. E. (2009). Successful Placement of Postpyloric Enteral Tubes using Electromagnetic Guidance in Critically Ill Children. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, 10(2), 196–200

In adult patients, NGT misplacement causes serious harm in 1 to 3% of tubes placed11
11.

Gilbertson, H. R., Rogers, E. J. and Ukoumunne, O. C. (2011). Determination of a Practical pH Cutoff Level for Reliable Confirmation of Nasogastric Tube Placement. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 35(4), 540–544. doi:10.1177/0148607110383285

Between 2005 and March 2011 the NPSA was notified of 21 deaths and 79 cases of harm due to misplaced NG tubes.12
12.

Medical Protection. (2012). Nasogastric Tube Errors.

The Drug Information Service at University of Utah Health Care (UUHC), which partners with the ASHP to manage its drug shortage program, tracked a total of 211 drug shortages in 2010—the highest number recorded to date in a single year.13
13.

Ventola, C. Lee. (2011). U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. The Drug Shortage Crisis in the United States.

Injuries related to falls can result in an additional 6.3 hospital days with the cost for a serious fall with injury averaging $14,056 per patient14
14.

Health Research & Educational Trust. (2016, October). Preventing Patient Falls: A Systematic Approach from the Joint Commission Center for Transforming Healthcare Project. Retrieved from http://www.hpoe.org/Reports-HPOE/2016/preventing-patient-falls.pdf

Patients who have a serious injury related to a fall during a hospital stay average 6–12 days of additional hospital time and incur higher costs than comparison patients ($13,316 more, on average) compared to their peers15
15.

Bouldin, E. L., Andresen, E. M., Dunton, N. E., Simon, M., Waters, T. M., Liu, M., … Shorr, R. I. (2013). Falls among adult patients hospitalized in the United States: prevalence and trends. Journal of patient safety, 9(1), 13–17. doi:10.1097/PTS.0b013e3182699b64

Approximately half of the 1.6 million nursing home residents in the United States fall each year16
16.

AHRQ. (2019, September). Falls. Retrieved from https://psnet.ahrq.gov/primer/falls

Epidemiologic studies have found that falls occur at a rate of 3–5 per 1000 bed-days, and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality estimates that 700,000 to 1 million hospitalized patients fall each year.17
17.

AHRQ. (2019, September). Falls. Retrieved from https://psnet.ahrq.gov/primer/falls

According to the Kings Fund, falls are one of the most causes of preventable harm for aging adults in Europe18
18.

Maybin, J., Charles, A., & Honeyman, M. (2016). Understanding quality in district nursing services. The King’s Fund, London

Each year, somewhere between 700,000 and 1,000,000 people in the United States fall in the hospital. A fall may result in fractures, lacerations, or internal bleeding, leading to increased health care utilization. Research shows that close to one-third of falls can be prevented.19
19.

Preventing Falls in Hospitals. Content last reviewed January 2013. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/systems/hospital/fallpxtoolkit/index.html

The new numbers are being released in conjunction with the 9th Falls Prevention Awareness Day, sponsored by the National Council on Aging (NCOA). The observance addresses the growing public health issue and promotes evidence-based prevention programs and strategies to reduce the more than 27,000 fall deaths in older adults each year.20
20.

Evaluate. (2016) Falls are leading cause of injury and death in older Americans. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. [online] http://evaluategroup.com/Universal/View.aspx?type=Story&id=661184

In 2014 alone, older Americans experienced 29 million falls causing seven million injuries and costing an estimated $31 billion in annual Medicare costs, according to a new report published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in this week’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)21
21.

CDC. (2016). Falls are leading cause of injury and death in older Americans. [online] Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2016/p0922-older-adult-falls.html.

According to the CDC, Every second of every day in the United States an older adult falls, making falls the number one cause of injuries and deaths from injury among older Americans.22
22.

CDC. (2016). Falls are leading cause of injury and death in older Americans. [online] Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2016/p0922-older-adult-falls.html.

Up to 47% of mental health care providers have experienced violence at work23
23.

Nolan, P., Dallender, J., Soares, J., Thomesen, S., & Arnetz, B. (1999). Violence in Mental Health Care: The Experiences of Mental Health Nurses and Psychiatrists. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 30(4) 934-941

Seclusion rates in an acute inpatient psychiatry unit can reach as high as 31%, with the most common indicator of seclusion being risk to others (74%) followed by risk to self (61%) and risk of absconding (55%)24
24.

Tunde-Ayinmode, M., & Little, J. (2004) Use of Seclusion in a Psychiatric Acute Inpatient Unit. Australasian Psychiatry. 12(4) 347-351. DOI: 10.1080/j.1440-1665.2004.02125.x

About 1,500 suicides take place at inpatient psychiatric units in the U.S. each year—over 70% by hanging25
25.

Mills, P.D., King, L., Watts, B., & Hemphill, R. (2013) Inpatient Suicide on Mental Health Units in Veterans Affairs (VA) Hospitals: Avoiding Environmental Hazards. The American Journal of Medicine 35(5) 528-536. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2013.03.021

25-30% of healthy adults have patent foramen ovale (PFO), and most of these are asymptomatic and undiagnosed26
26.

Hagen, P.T., Scholz, D.G., Edwards, W.D. (1984). Incidence and Size of Patent Foramen Ovale During the First 10 Decades of Life: An Autopsy Study of 965 Normal Hearts. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 59(1), 17–20. doi:10.1016/s0025-6196(12)60336-x

The estimated number of annual VTE cases is 3.9 million in high-income countries and 6.0 million in low- and middle-income countries27
27.

Raskob, G. E. et al. (2014). A major contributor to global disease burden. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 34, 2363-2371

Up to 65% older post-operative patients suffer some form of delirium following a surgical procedure, especially if requiring ICU admission28
28.

Marcantonio, E. (2017). Delirium in Hospitalized Older Adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 377(15)

It is estimated that up to 40% of hospital-related episodes of delirium are preventable29
29.

Inouye, S., Westendorp, R., & Saczynski, J. (2014). Delirium in elderly people. Lancet, 383(9920)

The cost of an episode of acute care is increased 2.5 times by the occurrence of delirium, increasing the cost of healthcare in the United States by over $125 billion dollars every year30
30.

Inouye, S., Westendorp, R., & Saczynski, J. (2014). Delirium in elderly people. Lancet, 383(9920).; Brown, C. H., Laflam, A., Max, L., Lymar, D., Neufeld, K. J., Tian, J., … Hogue, C. W. (2016). The Impact of Delirium After Cardiac Surgical Procedures on Postoperative Resource Use. The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 101(5), 1663–1669. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2015.12.074

10% to 30% of hospitalized patients age 65 and older have an episode of delirium during their stay31
31.

Arnold, E. (2005). Sorting Out the 3 D’s: Delirium, Dementia, Depression. Learn How to Sift Through Overlapping Signs and Symptoms So You Can Help Improve an Older Patient’s Quality of Life. Holistic Nursing Practice,19(3)

Delirium is characterized by altered mental status and hallmarked by a fluctuating and fleeting attention span32
32.

 Brown, L. J., Fordyce, C., Zaghdani, H., Starr, J. M., & Maclullich, A. M. (2010). Detecting deficits of sustained visual attention in delirium. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry,82(12), 1334-1340. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.208827

Delirium is defined as an acute change or fluctuation in the course of a patient’s mental status, plus inattention and either disorganized thinking or an altered level of consciousness33
33.

Inouye SK, van Dyck CH, Alessi CA, et al: Clarifying confusion: The confusion assessment method. Ann Intern Med 1990; 113: 941–948

Many healthcare professionals acknowledge the severity of delirium in patients and many even admit to its misdiagnosis, confusion with other conditions, or mistreatment34
34.

Ely, E. W., Stephens, R. K., Jackson, J. C., Thomason, J. W., Truman, B., Gordon, S., . . . Bernard, G. R. (2004). Current opinions regarding the importance, diagnosis, and management of delirium in the intensive care unit: A survey of 912 healthcare professionals*. Critical Care Medicine,32(1), 106-112. doi:10.1097/01.ccm.0000098033.94737.84

Early identification of delirium in patients can avoid inappropriate early discharge, thereby leading to successful outcomes through extended observation and care35
35.

Breitbart W., Bruera E., Chochinov H.& Lynch M. (1995) Neuropsychiatric syndromes and psychological symptoms in patients with advanced cancer. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 10, 131–141

Each year, an estimated 2,000 infants die or are undiagnosed in the U.S. and some 300,000 infants die or are undiagnosed globally36
36.

Salvi, S. (2016, September). Faculty of 1000 evaluation for Global, Regional, and National Age- sex Specific All-cause and Cause-specific Mortality for 240 Causes of Death, 1990-2013: a Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Faculty of 1000 Ltd. doi:10.3410/f.725286838.793523287

More than 30% of CCHD deaths have been attributed to late or missed diagnosis37
37.

Chang, R.-K. R., Gurvitz, M. and Rodriguez, S. (2008). Missed Diagnosis of Critical Congenital Heart Disease. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 162(10), 969. doi:10.1001/archpedi.162.10.969

Screenings show that the number of deaths from CCHD is closer to 120 each year38
38.

Grosse, S. D., Riehle-Colarusso, T., Gaffney, M., Mason, C. A., Shapira, S. K., Sontag, M. K., … Iskander, J. (2017). CDC Grand Rounds: Newborn Screening for Hearing Loss and Critical Congenital Heart Disease. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep, 66, 888–890

Before newborn screening programs were introduced in the U.S. in 2012, it was estimated that between 70-100 infants died each year from late-diagnosed CCHD39
39.

Govindaswami, B., Jegatheesan, P. and Song, D. (2012). Oxygen Saturation Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Disease. NeoReviews, 13(12), e724–e731. doi:10.1542/neo.13-12-e724)

CCHD causes most of the deaths due to CHD that occur within the first year of life40
40.

Hoffman, J. I. E. and Kaplan, S. (2002). The Incidence of Congenital Heart Disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 39(12), 1890–1900. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(02)01886-7

Each year, nearly 40,000 infants are born with CHD in the U.S., and 1.35 million infants are born with CHD globally41
41.

Hoffman, J. I. E. and Kaplan, S. (2002). The Incidence of Congenital Heart Disease. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 39(12), 1890–1900. doi:10.1016/s0735-1097(02)01886-7

CHD is the most common birth defect, affecting approximately 8 in 1,000 live-born infants42
42.

Reller, M. D., Strickland, M. J., Riehle-Colarusso, T., Mahle, W. T. and Correa, A. (2008). Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects in Metropolitan Atlanta 1998-2005. The Journal of Pediatrics, 153(6), 807–813. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2008.05.059

At 5 years of age, motor impairment, cognitive impairment, and severe hearing loss that is 3-4 times more common in children with severe ROP, typically caused by newborn over-use of supplemental oxygen, than those without it43
43.

Neonatal Safety. (2019, December 4). Retrieved from https://patientsafetymovement.org/actionable-solutions/challenge-solutions/neonatal-safety/

Even for intubations performed by hospital-based transport teams, 70% of neonates required multiple attempts, compared to 30% of the pediatric population44
44.

Smith, K. A., Gothard, M. D., Schwartz, H. P., Giuliano, J. S., Jr., Forbes, M., & Bigham, M. T. (2015). Risk Factors for Failed Tracheal Intubation in Pediatric and Neonatal Critical Care Specialty Transport. Prehosp Emerg Care, 19(1), 17-22. doi:10.3109/10903127.2014.964888

In the hospital setting, first attempt intubation success in neonates is <50%45
45.

Sauer, C. W., Kong, J. Y., Vaucher, Y. E., Finer, N., Proudfoot, J. A., Boutin, M. A., & Leone, T. A. (2016). Intubation attempts increase the risk for severe intraventricular hemorrhage in preterm infants—A retrospective cohort study. The Journal of Pediatrics, 177, 108-113. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.06.051

The incidence of failed intubations in children in out-of-hospital settings, defined by 3 or more unsuccessful attempts, is as high as 58%, and these or other major intubation difficulties are associated with higher odds of cardiac arrest46
46.

Hansen, M., Meckler, G., Lambert, W., Dickinson, C., Dickinson, K., Van Otterloo, J., & Guise, J. M. (2016). Patient safety events in out-of-hospital paediatric airway management: a medical record review by the CSI-EMS. BMJ Open, 6(11), e012259. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-012259

Unplanned Extubations happen in over 7% of patients who undergo mechanical ventilation in the ICU and the complications of unplanned extubations result in over $4 billion in healthcare costs47
47.

da Silva, P. S. L. and Fonseca, M. C. M. (2012). Unplanned Endotracheal Extubations in the Intensive Care Unit. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 114(5), 1003–1014. doi:10.1213/ane.0b013e31824b0296

Failed intubations occur in as high as 38% of patients in non-physician intubator field cases and as high as 22% of patients in physician intubator field cases48
48.

Crewdson, K., Lockey, D.J., Roislien, J., Lossius, H.M., & Rehn, M. (2017). The success of pre-hospital tracheal intubation by different pre-hospital providers: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Critical Care, 21(31), https://doi.org/10.1186/s13054-017-1603-7

The incidence of failed airways can be as high as 1 in 50-100 in ED and ICU settings and the occurrence of death or brain damage have been reported to be 38-fold (ED) to 58-fold (ICU) higher compared to the operating room setting with anesthesia49
49.

Cook, T. M. and MacDougall-Davis, S. R. (2012). Complications and Failure of Airway Management. British Journal of Anaesthesia, 109(suppl 1), i68–i85. doi:10.1093/bja/aes393

A majority of respondents felt that drug shortages had compromised patient care. Most (71%) were unable to provide patients with the recommended drug or treatment for their condition due to shortages, and nearly half (47%) thought that this resulted in patients receiving a less effective drug. Also, three-quarters (75%) of respondents stated that patient treatments had been delayed because of drug shortages50
50.

Drug Shortages Continue to Compromise Patient Care. (2018, January 11). Retrieved from https://www.ismp.org/resources/drug-shortages-continue-compromise-patient-care

Ninety-four percent of respondents reported rationing or restricting drugs in short supply. Examples included establishing criteria for using products, restricting access to drugs via override in automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs), and providing kits for emergency drugs. Thirty percent of all respondents said they have used a drug in short supply outside its specific labeling to help extend its use, such as keeping expired products (without FDA-extended dating) in code carts51
51.

Drug Shortages Continue to Compromise Patient Care. (2018, January 11). Retrieved from https://www.ismp.org/resources/drug-shortages-continue-compromise-patient-care

The number of errors more than doubled from 3,065 cases in 2000 to 6,855 cases in 201252
52.

Hayes, K. (2017, July 24). Medication Errors Rise, with 1.3M People Injured Yearly. Retrieved from https://www.aarp.org/health/drugs-supplements/info-2017/medication-errors-rise-fd.html

Adverse drug events (ADEs) account for more than 3.5 million physician office visits and 1 million emergency department visits each year. It is believed that preventable medication errors impact more than 7 million patients and cost almost $21 billion annually across all care settings. About 30% of hospitalized patients have at least one discrepancy on discharge medication reconciliation.53
53.

Silva, B. A. D., & Krishnamurthy, M. (2016). The alarming reality of medication error: a patient case and review of Pennsylvania and National data. Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives, 6(4), 31758. doi: 10.3402/jchimp.v6.31758

Mortality from sepsis increases by as much as 8% for every hour that treatment is delayed. As many as 80% of sepsis deaths could be prevented with rapid diagnosis and treatmen54
54.

Kumar, A., Roberts, D., Wood, K. E., Light, B., Parrillo, J. E., Sharma, S., … Cheang, M.  (2006). Duration of hypotension before initiation of effective antimicrobial therapy is the critical determinant of survival in human septic shock*. Critical Care Medicine, 34(6), 1589–1596. doi: 10.1097/01.ccm.0000217961.75225.e9

CDC estimates that 1.7 million adults in the U.S. develop sepsis every year55
55.

Data & Reports. (2016, August 23). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/sepsis/datareports/index.html

85% [of sepsis] occurs in low- or middle-income countries56
56.

 Zick, M. (2020, January 16). The Lancet: Sepsis Associated with 1 in 5 Deaths Worldwide, Double Prior Estimates – Children and Poor Regions Hit Hardest. Retrieved from https://www.worldsepsisday.org/news/2020/1/16/the-lancet-sepsis-associated-with-1-in-5-deaths-worldwide-double-prior-estimates-children-and-poor-regions-hit-hardest-global-burden-disease-study-kristina-rudd

2 out of every 5 cases [of sepsis] are in children under 557
57.

Zick, M. (2020, January 16). The Lancet: Sepsis Associated with 1 in 5 Deaths Worldwide, Double Prior Estimates – Children and Poor Regions Hit Hardest. Retrieved from https://www.worldsepsisday.org/news/2020/1/16/the-lancet-sepsis-associated-with-1-in-5-deaths-worldwide-double-prior-estimates-children-and-poor-regions-hit-hardest-global-burden-disease-study-kristina-rudd

1 in every 5 deaths worldwide are associated with sepsis58
58.

Zick, M. (2020, January 16). The Lancet: Sepsis Associated with 1 in 5 Deaths Worldwide, Double Prior Estimates – Children and Poor Regions Hit Hardest. Retrieved from https://www.worldsepsisday.org/news/2020/1/16/the-lancet-sepsis-associated-with-1-in-5-deaths-worldwide-double-prior-estimates-children-and-poor-regions-hit-hardest-global-burden-disease-study-kristina-rudd

Twice as many people are dying from sepsis worldwide than previously estimated, with 48.9 million cases and 11 million deaths in 2017 alone59
59.

Zick, M. (2020, January 16). The Lancet: Sepsis Associated with 1 in 5 Deaths Worldwide, Double Prior Estimates – Children and Poor Regions Hit Hardest. Retrieved from https://www.worldsepsisday.org/news/2020/1/16/the-lancet-sepsis-associated-with-1-in-5-deaths-worldwide-double-prior-estimates-children-and-poor-regions-hit-hardest-global-burden-disease-study-kristina-rudd

HAIs alone are among the top ten causes of death in the US, according to AHRQ60
60.

Health Care-Associated Infections. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/quality-patient-safety/patient-safety-resources/resources/hais/index.html

The annual estimate for CAUTI costs is approximately $565 million with 8,205 deaths per year61
61.

Healthcare-Acquired Infections (HAIs). (n.d.). Retrieved from https://patientcarelink.org/improving-patient-care/healthcare-acquired-infections-hais/

Patients who acquire infections in the hospital are not only twice as likely to die, but spend, on average, almost 7 extra days in the hospital and are five times more at risk for readmission62
62.

Healthcare-Acquired Infections (HAIs). (n.d.). Retrieved from https://patientcarelink.org/improving-patient-care/healthcare-acquired-infections-hais/

In US hospitals, according to the CDC estimates, HAIs account for 1.7 million infections and 99,000 associated deaths annually. Of these infections, 32 percent are urinary tract infections, 22 percent are surgical site infections, and 14% are bloodstream infections63
63.

Klevens, R. M., Edwards, J. R., Richards, C. L., Horan, T. C., Gaynes, R. P., Pollock, D. A., & Cardo, D. M. (2007). Estimating Health Care-Associated Infections and Deaths in U.S. Hospitals, 2002. Public Health Reports, 122(2), 160–166. doi: 10.1177/003335490712200205

An estimated 1.7 million healthcare-associated infections occur each year leading to 99,000 deaths.64
64.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Preventing Healthcare-Associated Infections. Retrieved https://www.cdc.gov/washington/~cdcatWork/pdf/infections.pdf

4 in 10 patients harmed in healthcare65
65.

Finnegan, J. (2020, January 28).
4 in 10 patients harmed by medical errors in primary and outpatient settings. Retrieved from https://www.fiercehealthcare.com/practices/medical-errors-globally-as-many-as-4-10-patients-harmed-primary-and-outpatient-settings

Up to one-third of patients are unintentionally harmed during a hospital stay66
66.

James, J. T. (2013).
A New Evidence-based Estimate of Patient Harms Associated with Hospital Care. Journal of Patient Safety, 9(3), pp. 122–128; Classen, D. C., Resar, R., Griffin, F., Federico, F., Frankel, T., Kimmel, N., . . . James, B. C. (2011). ‘Global Trigger Tool’ Shows That Adverse Events In Hospitals May Be Ten Times Greater Than  Previously Measured. Health Affairs,30(4), 581-589. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2011.0190

At the local level, collaboration between the public health sector, hospitals, and outcome improvement experts reduced hospital readmissions by 7,000 in Minnesota between 2011 and 2013, enabling patients in Minnesota to spend 28,120 nights sleeping in their own beds instead of the hospital, and helped reduce healthcare costs by more than $55 million67
67.

AHRQ. (2016). National Patient Safety Efforts Save 125,000 Lives and Nearly $28 Billion in Costs. Retrieved from https://www.ahrq.gov/news/newsroom/press-releases/national-patient-safety-efforts-save-lives.html.

One study found that the rate of adverse events decreased by almost 30% after a multicomponent intervention involving structured team communication as well as patient engagement tools and training on patient safety in the intensive care unit68
68.

Dykes PC ; Rozenblum R ; Dalal A; et al. Prospective evaluation of a multifaceted intervention to improve outcomes in intensive care: the Promoting Respect and Ongoing Safety through Patient Engagement Communication and Technology study.  Crit Care Med. 2017; 45: e806-e813. https://psnet.ahrq.gov/resources/resource/31062

Implementing patient and family engagement strategies has led to fewer hospital-acquired infections, reduced medical errors, reduced serious safety events, and increased patient satisfaction scores69
69.

Issue Brief: Patient and Family Engagement: A Partnership for Culture Change: A Report of the NCIOM Task Force on Patient and Family Engagement. (2015). North Carolina Medical Journal, 76(3), pp.197-200

Blood transfusions also are associated with longer hospital stays – slightly more than two extra days on average70
Breakdowns in communication were the leading cause of sentinel events (death or serious harm to a patient that requires further review) reported to The Joint Commission between 1995 and 200671
71.

The Joint Commission. (2013). Sentinel Events (SE). Retrieved from https://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/CAMH_2012_Update2_24_SE.pdf

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) reports that nearly half of hospital staff believe patient information is lost during transfers across hospital units or during shift changes72
72.

Sorra, J. and Nieva, V. F. (2004). Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

With 67% of patients facing unintended medication discrepancies in the hospital and more than 40% of medication reconciliation errors resulting from miscommunications in handoffs, medication safety has become a leading priority for patients and caregivers73
73.

Tam, V. C. (2005). Frequency, type and clinical importance of medication history errors at admission to hospital: a systematic review. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 173(5), 510–515. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.045311

It is estimated that as high as 80 percent of medical bills contain errors74
74.

Gooch, Kelly. (2016). “Medical billing errors growing, says Medical Billing Advocates of America.” Becker’s Hospital Review. Retrieved from https://www.beckershospitalreview.com/finance/medical-billing-errors-growing-says-medical-billing-advocates-of-america.html

According to the WHO, 1 in 10 patients may be harmed while receiving care in developed countries while receiving hospital care75
75.

World Health Organization. (2018). 10 facts on patient safety. [online] Available at: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/patient_safety/en/

According the WHO, European data, mostly from European Union Member States, consistently show that medical errors and health-care related adverse events occur in 8% to 12% of hospitalizations. For example, the United Kingdom Department of Health, in its 2000 report An organization with a memory, estimated about 850 000 adverse events a year (10% of hospital admissions). Spain (in its 2005 national study of adverse events) and France and Denmark have published incidence studies with similar results.76
76.

World Health Organization. A brief synopsis on patient safety. (2010).

According to the WHO, Statistics show that strategies to reduce the rate of adverse events in the European Union alone would lead to the prevention of more than 750 000 harm-inflicting medical errors per year, leading in turn to over 3.2 million fewer days of hospitalization, 260 000 fewer incidents of permanent disability, and 95 000 fewer deaths per year.77
77.

Euro.who.int. (2018). Data and statistics. [online] Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/patient-safety/data-and-statistics

According to the WHO, Patient safety is a serious global public health issue. There is a 1 in 1,000,000 chance of a traveler being harmed while in an aircraft. In comparison, there is a 1 in 300 chance of a patient being harmed during health care.78
78.

World Health Organization. (2018). 10 facts on patient safety. [online] Available at: http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/patient_safety/en/

31% to 39% medication administration error rate in pediatric emergency departments.79
79.

190114 – Get to Zero Infographic. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ebroselow.com/190114-get-to-zero-infographic/

4 in 10 children suffer medication errors during an emergency.80
80.

190114 – Get to Zero Infographic. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ebroselow.com/190114-get-to-zero-infographic/

1.3 million people injured from adverse drug events in 2017 alone81
81.

190114 – Get to Zero Infographic. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ebroselow.com/190114-get-to-zero-infographic/

“The most common reasons for shortages were manufacturing problems (28%) and product discontinuation (20%). The most frequently represented pharmacologic-therapeutic categories were central nervous system agents (24%) and serums, toxoids, and vaccines (17%).”82
82.

Fox, E., & Tyler, L. (2003). Managing drug shortages: Seven years’ experience at one health system. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy,60(3).

“The number of prescription drug shortages in the country nearly tripled between 2005 and 2010.”83
83.

Kweder, S. L., & Dill, S. (2012). Drug Shortages: The Cycle of Quantity and Quality. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics,93(3), 245-251. doi:10.1038/clpt.2012.235

“Manufacturers are required to notify the FDA of quality problems; however, drug shortages or discontinuations are often caused by a business decision or other factors that don’t require FDA notification.”84
84.

Ventola, C. L. (2011). The Drug Shortage Crisis in the United States: Causes, Impact, and Management Strategies. Pharmacy and Therapeutics, 36(11), 740–757.

“Delirium is associated with multiple serious outcomes including increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, healthcare costs, institutionalization, and mortality”85
85.

Greer, N., Rossom, R., Anderson, P., MacDonald, R., Tacklind, J., Rutks, I., & Wilt, T. (2011). Delirium: Screening, Prevention, and Diagnosis – A Systematic Review of the Evidence. Europe PMC.

“Patients who are admitted to the hospital with delirium have mortality rates 10% to 26% higher than similar patients without delirium at the time of admission”86
86.

Goldstein, N. E., & Morrison, R. S. (2013). Evidence-based practice of palliative medicine. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Saunders.

In one study, about 74% of patients with major depression achieved a 50% reduction in depression symptoms under collaborative care compared to 44% for patients receiving usual care.87
87.

Katon, W., Von Korff, M., Lin, E., Walker, E., Simon, G. E., Bush, T., . . . Russo, J. (1995). Collaborative Management to Achieve Treatment Guidelines: Impact on Depression in Primary Care. JAMA, 273(13), 1026. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03520370068039

A few studies on the effects of collaborative care suggest that it is more effective than usual care in improving anxiety for up to 2 years.88
88.

Archer J, Bower P, Gilbody S, Lovell K, Richards D, Gask L, Dickens C, Coventry P. Collaborative care for depression and anxiety problems. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD006525. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006525.pub2.

Collaborative care for anxiety and depression is one of the most well-evaluated interventions in mental health in primary care.89
89.

Archer J, Bower P, Gilbody S, Lovell K, Richards D, Gask L, Dickens C, Coventry P. Collaborative care for depression and anxiety problems. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 10. Art. No.: CD006525. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006525.pub2.

Collaborative care programs have been shown to be both clinically-effective and cost-effective for a variety of mental health conditions, in a variety of settings, using several different payment mechanisms.90
90.

Unützer, J., Harbin, H., Schoenbaum, M., & Druss, B. (2013). The Collaborative Care Model: An Approach for Integrating Physical and Mental Health Care in Medicaid Health Homes. Health Home.

Recent mortality rates due to arterial emboli range from 4 to 15%.91
91.

Lyaker, M. R., Tulman, D. B., Dimitrova, G. T., Pin, R. H., & Papadimos, T. J. (2013). Arterial embolism. International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science, 3(1), 77–87. http://doi.org/10.4103/2229-5151.109429

Aortic atherosclerotic plaque is one of the leading sources of embolic disease.92
92.

Kronzon I., Tunick P.A. Aortic atherosclerotic disease and stroke. Circulation. 2006;114:63–75.

Complications of arterial embolism are a leading cause of disability and death in the United States.93
93.

Lyaker, M. R., Tulman, D. B., Dimitrova, G. T., Pin, R. H., & Papadimos, T. J. (2013). Arterial embolism. International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science, 3(1), 77–87. http://doi.org/10.4103/2229-5151.109429

The rate of caesarean section births in the U.S. was 32.7 percent in 2013, which is above the WHO’s ideal “medically necessary” target of 10-15 percent.94
94.

Gibbons, L., Belizán, J. M., Lauer, J. A., Betrán, A. P., Merialdi, M., & Althabe, F. (2010). The Global Numbers and Costs of Additionally Needed and Unnecessary Caesarean Sections Performed per Year: Overuse as a Barrier to Universal Coverage (World Health Report, Rep.). World Health Organization. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/healthsystems/topics/financing/healthreport/30C-sectioncosts.pdf

The cost for each occurrence is an average of $66,007 per air embolism.95
95.

Rowland, Hudson T. (2009) “When Never Happens: Implications of Medicare’s Never-Event Policy,” Marquette Elder’s Advisor: Vol. 10: Iss. 2, Article 7.

The mortality rate of central line related air emboli death ranges from 23% to 50%.96
96.

Feil, M. (2015). Preventing Central Line Air Embolism. AJN, American Journal of Nursing,115(6), 64-69. doi:10.1097/01.naj.0000466327.76934.a0

The incidence of massive air embolism in cardiac bypass procedures is between 0.003% and 0.007% with 50% having adverse outcomes.97
97.

Hammon, J.W., Hines, M.H. Extracorporeal Circulation. In: Cohn LH, editor. Cardiac Surgery in the Adult. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2012.

Using C-section data reported by 1,318 hospitals through the voluntary 2016 Leapfrog Hospital Survey, Leapfrog found that over 55% of reporting hospitals had excessive rates of C-sections. That means that far too many women are undergoing a major abdominal surgery without medical necessity.98
98.

The Leapfrog Group. Rate of C-Sections. http://www.leapfroggroup.org/ratings-reports/rate-c-sections

Recent statistics from 150 countries show a global C-section rate of 18.6% for all births. Almost 1 in 5 women around the world will give birth via C-section.99
99.

McCulloch, Sam. (2016). Highest C-section Rates by Country. (Cited 2016 December 9).

With a projected C-section rate of 19.5 percent in 2012, 250 of every 100,000 mothers died during childbirth. A death rate more common in countries with C-section rates below 7 percent.100
100.

Palmer, Katie M. (2015). How Many C-Sections is Too Many C-Sections?. (Cited 2015 December 1).

C-sections are a major surgery and encompass all the risks of any hospital procedure. Unnecessary C-sections may be responsible for up to 20,000 major surgical complications a year, including everything from sepsis, a life-threatening complication, to hemorrhage or organ injury.101
101.

Haelle, Tara. (2017). Your Biggest C-Section Risk May Be Your Hospital. (Cited 2017 May 16).

Each year an estimated 646, 000 individuals die from falls globally. Of which over 80% are in low and middle-income countries.102
102.

World Health Organization. (2017). Falls. (Cited 2017 August).

The rate of patient falls in ambulatory surgery centers was found to be 0.124 per 1,000 admissions, according to the ASC Quality Collaboration Report: 3rd Quarter 2013.103
103.

Vaidya, Anuja. (2014). Three Statistics on Rate of Patient Falls Per 1,000 ASC Admissions. (Cited 2014 January 27).

Between 700,000 and 1,000,000 people experience falls in U.S. hospitals annually. 30 to 50% of those falls result in an injury.104
104.

MCN Healthcare. (2016). Patient Falls Top TJC’s 2Q 2016 List of Reported Sentinel Events. (Cited 2016 August 8).

Accidental falls are among the most common incidents reported in hospitals, complicating approximately 2% of hospital stays. Rates of falls in U.S. hospitals range from 3.3 to 11.5 falls per 1,000 patient days.105
105.

U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. (2014). Falls Among Adult Patients Hospitalized in the United States: Prevalence and Trends. (Cited 2014)

A shortage of the injectable antibiotic streptomycin was reported in 15 countries in 2010, with 11 more countries predicting their stocks would run out before they could be replenished.106
106.

Gray, Andy. Manasse, Henri R. (2012). Shortages of Medicines: A Complex Global Challenge. (Cited 2012 March).

One recent survey found that 89% of hospitals implicated a drug shortage as a potential cause for a medical error or patient safety issue. In 2012, an Associated Press article reported 15 deaths over the course of 15 months directly attributed to drug shortages.107
107.

Academic Emergency Medicine, Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. (2014). Critical Drug Shortages: Implications for Emergency Medicine.

The Drug Information Service at the University of Utah Health Care (UUHC), which partners with the ASHP to manage its drug shortage program, tracked a total of 211 drug shortages in 2010—the highest number recorded to date in a single year.108
108.

Ventola, C. Lee. (2011). U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. The Drug Shortage Crisis in the United States. (cited 2011 November).

According to a recent infographic supplied by the FDA, quality issues affect 64% of all drug shortages. A lack of raw material, a boost in drug demand (as has occurred in the past with flu vaccines and antiviral treatments) and lack of financial incentive to continue manufacturer production, can affect drug availability.109
109.

Drugs.com. Drug Shortage Statistics in the U.S. and the FDA Response. https://www.drugs.com/drug-shortages/stats

Thousands of feeding tubes are inserted daily without incident. However, there is a small risk that the nasogastric feeding tube can be misplaced into the lungs during insertion, or move out of the stomach at a later stage. In 2009, feeding into the lung from a misplaced nasogastric tube became a “never event” in England.110
110.

NHS Salisbury. (2011). Insertion and Care of Nasogastric Tubes. (Cited 2011 March).

In studying over 2,000 feeding tube insertions, Sorokin et al. (2006) determined 1.3 to 2.4 percent of NG tubes were malpositioned and 28 percent of those resulted in respiratory complications (e.g. pneumonia, pneumothorax).111
111.

Children’s Hospital Association, Child Health Patient Safety Organization. (2012). A Patient Experienced a SERIOUS SAFETY EVENT. (cited 2012 August).

Between 2005 and 2011 the NPSA was notified of 21 deaths and 79 cases of harm due to misplaced NG tubes.112
112.

Medical Protection. (2012). Nasogastric Tube Errors. (cited 2012).

Every year, nearly 500,000 nasogastric (NG) and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes and suction tubes are misplaced, which result in severe complications or death.113
113.

AHC Media. (2015). Misplaced NG tubes a major patient safety risk. (cited 2015 April 1).

The global mHealth solutions market (including apps, mHealth services, and connected medical devices) is expected to grow to $59.15 billion by 2020, surging by an annual rate of 33.4% during that time.114
114.

Iafolla, Teresa. (2016). 21 Fascinating Patient Engagement Stats. (Cited 2016 February 15).

A 2015 study showed that 45% of adults are at risk for limited health literacy. That is nearly half of patients.115
115.

Hayley, Kenslea. (2016). Five Patient Engagement Statistics You Can’t Afford to Ignore. (cited 2016 August 11).

In a recent Gallup survey, when patients agree that they “knew what to expect after surgery” 72% were extremely satisfied with surgery results, compared to only 39% satisfaction among those who did not know what to expect.116
116.

Hayley, Kenslea. (2016). Five Patient Engagement Statistics You Can’t Afford to Ignore. (cited 2016 August 11).

A recent poll showed just under 60 percent of folks, even in higher age brackets, are willing to engage electronically with care providers.117
117.

Hayley, Kenslea. (2016). Five Patient Engagement Statistics You Can’t Afford to Ignore. (cited 2016 August 11).

11.7 beds remain per 100,000 people. This means there are fewer state hospital beds per capita than at any time since before the nation stopped criminalizing mental illness in the 1850s.118
118.

Fuller, D. A., & Sinclair, E. G. J., Quanbeck, C., & Snook, J.(2016). Going, going, gone: Trends & consequences of eliminating state psychiatric beds, 2016. Treatment Advocacy Center.

Nearly 20% of the hospital beds for the nation’s most severely ill and dangerous psychiatric patients were eliminated in the last 5 years.119
119.

Dieleman, J. L., Baral, R., Birger, M., Bui, A. L., Bulchis, A., Chapin, A., … & Lavado, R. (2016). US spending on personal health care and public health, 1996-2013. JAMA, 316(24), 2627-2646.

Adults living with serious mental illness die on average 25 years earlier than other Americans, largely due to treatable medical conditions.120
120.

National Association of State Mental Health Program Directors Council. (2006). Morbidity and Mortality in People with Serious Mental Illness. Alexandria, VA: Parks, J., et al. – See more at: http://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-By-the-Numbers#sthash.emQpo9jn.dpuf

Mood disorders such as depression are the 3rd most common cause of hospitalization in the U.S. for both youth and adults ages 18 to 44.121
121.

Wier, LM (Thompson Reuters), et al. HCUP facts and figures: statistics on hospital-based care in the United States, 2009. Web. Rockville, Md. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, 2011. Retrieved March 5, 2013, from http://www.hcup-us.ahrq.gov/reports.jsp.

Serious mental illness costs America $193.2 billion in lost earning per year.122
122.

Insel, T.R. (2008). Assessing the Economic Costs of Serious Mental Illness. The American Journal of Psychiatry. 165(6), 663-665 – See more at: http://www.nami.org/Learn-More/Mental-Health-By-the-Numbers – sthash.F0CmiSZV.dpuf

Approximately 60% of adults and almost ½ of youth ages 8 to 15 with a mental illness received no mental health services in the previous year.123
123.

National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). Statistics: Any Disorder Among Adults. Retrieved March 5, 2013, from: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/1ANYDIS_ADULT.shtml

Approximately 20% of youth ages 13 to 18 experience severe mental disorders in a given year.124
124.

National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Mental Health. (n.d.). Statistics: Any Disorder Among Adults. Retrieved March 5, 2013, from: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/1ANYDIS_ADULT.shtml

25% of Americans experience mental illness in a given year.125
125.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). CDC Report: Mental Illness Surveillance Among Adults in the United States. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/mentalhealthsurveillance/fact_sheet.html

In 2005, there were 17 public psychiatric beds available per 100,000 population compared to 340 per 100,000 in 1955. Thus, 95 percent of the beds available in 1955 were no longer available in 2005.126
126.

Torrey, E. F., Estsminger, K., Geller, J., Stanley, J., & Jaffe, D. J. (2015). The shortage of public hospital beds for mentally ill persons. 2008. The Treatment Advocacy Center. Arlington, VA.

In Europe, there are 544,000 VTE-related deaths every year.127
127.

Heit, JA. Poster 68 presented at: American Society of Hematology, 47th Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA, December 10-13, 2005.

In the United States, there are 100,000 – 300,000 VTE-related deaths every year.128
128.

Office of the Surgeon General (US. (2008). The Surgeon General’s call to action to prevent deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

Every year, there are approximately 10 million cases of VTE worldwide.129
129.

Jha, A. K., Larizgoitia, I., Audera-Lopez, C., Prasopa-Plaizier, N., Waters, H., & Bates, D. W. (2013). The global burden of unsafe medical care: Analytic modelling of observational studies. BMJ Quality & Safety, 22(10), 809-815.

In the U.S. and Europe, VTE-related events kill more people than AIDS, breast cancer, prostate cancer and motor vehicle crashes combined.130
130.

Cohen AT, Agnelli G, Anderson FA, et al. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) in Europe. Thromb Haemost. 2007;98:756-764.

11.1% of pregnancy-related deaths in the U.S. resulted from “hypertensive disorders of pregnancy,” including preeclampsia.131
Pre-eclampsia is the cause of 15% of premature births in the U.S.132
132.

Jeyabalan, A. (2013). Epidemiology of preeclampsia: Impact of obesity. Nutrition Reviews, 71(0 1), 10.1111/nure.12055. http://doi.org/10.1111/nure.12055

Obstetric hemorrhage and pre-eclampsia account for over 70% of cases of severe maternal morbidity.133
133.

California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative. Project Overview/FAQs. Retrieved from: https://www.cmqcc.org/resource/2900/download

Over the past decade, severe maternal morbidity in the United States has increased by 75% for complications associated with delivery and, specifically, 114% for postpartum hemorrhage.134
134.

Callaghan, W.M., Creanga, A.A., Kuklina, E.V. Severe maternal morbidity among delievey and postpartum hospitalizations in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 2012;120:1029-36.

125,000 women a year are affected by postpartum hemorrhage.135
135.

The AWHONN Postpartum Hemorrhage Project. Maternal Morbidity & Mortality.

Postpartum hemorrhage is a leading cause of pregnancy-related complications, with an estimated 2.9% of the women who give birth in the U.S. will bleed too much.136
136.

The AWHONN Postpartum Hemorrhage Project. Maternal Morbidity & Mortality.

Approximately 50% of hospital risk management budgets are allocated for obstetric events, and birth-related events account for more than 75% of claims paid in amounts over $1 million.137
137.

Perinatal Safety Intervention Program (PSIP): Design and Development: AHRQ’s 2012 Annual Conference Slide Presentation. December 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. https://archive.ahrq.gov/news/events/conference/2012/track_a/106_hendrich_kamerow/kamerow.html

Anemia is estimated to be responsible for 17-46% of cases in maternal death.138
138.

Fawzia Ahmed Habib, Intessar Sultan and Shaista Salman (2012). Morbidity and Mortality in Anemia, Anemia, Dr. Donald Silverberg (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0138-3, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/anemia/morbidity-and-mortality-in-anemia

Over the past decade, severe maternal morbidity in the United States has increased by 75% for complications associated with delivery and, specifically, 114% for postpartum hemorrhage.139
139.

Callaghan WM, Creanga AA, Kuklina EV. Severe maternal morbidity among delivery and postpartum hospitalizations in the United States. Obstet Gynecol 2012;120:1029–36.

Obstetric hemorrhage and preeclampsia account for over 70% of cases of severe maternal morbidity.140
140.

California Maternal Quality Care Collaborative. Project Overview/FAQs. Retrieved from: https://www.cmqcc.org/resource/2900/download

The United States is the one of the only countries where maternal deaths and injuries have increased.141
141.

Gaskin, I. M. (2008). Maternal Death in the United States: A Problem Solved or a Problem Ignored? The Journal of Perinatal Education, 17(2), 9–13. http://doi.org/10.1624/105812408X298336

Every 10 minutes, a woman in the United States almost dies of pregnancy-related complications.142
142.

The AWHONN Postpartum Hemorrhage Project. Maternal Morbidity & Mortality.

30-40% of “near misses” and severe maternal morbidities may be preventable through changes in patient, health care provider, and system factors.143
143.

Perinatal Safety Intervention Program (PSIP): Design and Development: AHRQ’s 2012 Annual Conference Slide Presentation. December 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. https://archive.ahrq.gov/news/events/conference/2012/track_a/106_hendrich_kamerow/kamerow.html

CPR only provides 10 – 30% of normal blood flow to the heart and 30 – 40% of normal blood flow to the brain when performed according to guidelines, therefore CPR must be delivered at the highest quality possible.144
144.

Meaney, P. A., Bobrow, B. J., Mancini, M. E., Christenson, J., De Caen, A. R., Bhanji, F., … & Aufderheide, T. P. (2013). Cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality: improving cardiac resuscitation outcomes both inside and outside the hospital a consensus statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 128(4), 417-435.

Sepsis was the most expensive condition treated in U.S. hospitals, costing more than $20 billion in 2011.145
145.

Torio, C. M., & Andrews, R. M. (2013). National inpatient hospital costs: the most expensive conditions by payer, 2011.

Sepsis is the number one cause of death in the ICU in the U.S.146
146.

Mayr, F. B., Yende, S., & Angus, D. C. (2014). Epidemiology of severe sepsis. Virulence5(1), 4–11. http://doi.org/10.4161/viru.27372

Sepsis mortality rate is 30-40%.147
147.

Fleischmann, C., Thomas–Rueddel, D. O., Hartmann, M., Hartog, C. S., Welte, T., Heublein, S., … Reinhart, K. (2016). Hospital Incidence and Mortality Rates of Sepsis: An Analysis of Hospital Episode (DRG) Statistics in Germany From 2007 to 2013. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International113(10), 159–166. http://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2016.0159

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality lists sepsis as the most expensive condition treated in U.S. hospitals, costing more than $20 billion in 2011.148
148.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Statistical Brief No. 160 August 2013. National inpatient hospital costs: the most expensive conditions by payer, 2011.

Severe sepsis is a growing problem in the United States with estimates of up to 3,000,000 hospitalizations per year.149
149.

Wang, H., Shapiro, N., Angus, D. and Yealy, D. (2007). National estimates of severe sepsis in United States emergency departments. Critical Care Medicine, 35(8), pp.1928-1936.

At least 10 to 15% of sepsis deaths are avoidable by vaccination, hygienic measures, early detection, and prompt treatment measures.150
150.

World Sepsis Day PRNewswire. http://www.world-sepsis-day.org. September 11, 2014.

Severe sepsis and septic shock are major healthcare problems, affecting millions of people around the world each year, killing one in four and often more, and increasing in incidence.151
151.

AMN Healthcare Education Services. (2014). Management of Sepsis in the Adult. Retrieved from: https://lms.rn.com/getpdf.php/2057.pdf

Unplanned extubation occurs in over 7% of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in the Intensive Care Unit and the complications of unplanned extubations result in over $4 billion healthcare costs.152
152.

da Silva, P. S. L., & Fonseca, M. C. M. (2012). Unplanned endotracheal extubations in the intensive care unit: Systematic review, critical appraisal, and evidence-based recommendations. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 114(5), 1003- 1014.

The incidence of perioperative complications is greater in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).153
153.

Liao, P., Yegneswaran, B., Vairavanathan, S. et al. Can J Anesth/J Can Anesth (2009) 56: 819. doi:10.1007/s12630-009-9190-y.

Sentinel events from respiratory depression are caused by wrong dosing 47% of the time and improper monitoring 29% of the time.154
154.

Joint Commission. (2012). Sentinel Event Alert Issue 49: Safe use of opioids in hospitals. August 8, 2012.

68% of all failure-to-rescue deaths occur among surgical inpatients with treatable complications, pressure ulcers, post-operative respiratory failure, and post-operative sepsis.155
155.

Reed and May, HealthGrades Patient Safety in American Hospitals Study, March 2011.

Approximately 25,000 potentially life-threatening errors occur daily in hospital intensive care units (ICUs), and up to 10 percent of these adverse events involve unintended incidents in Airway Management; more than half of these errors have been deemed preventable.156
156.

Needham, D. M., Thompson, D. A., Holzmueller, C. G., Dorman, T., Lubomski, L. H., Wu, A. W., … & Pronovost, P. J. (2004). A system factors analysis of airway events from the Intensive Care Unit Safety Reporting System (ICUSRS). Critical Care Medicine, 32(11), 2227-2233.

At least 300 infants with an unrecognized CCHD are discharged each year from newborn nurseries in the United States.157
157.

Aamir T, Kruse L, Ezeakudo O. Delayed diagnosis of critical congenital cardiovascular malformations (CCVM) and pulse oximetry screening of newborns. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:1146-1149

Critical congenital heart disease is estimated to affect one out of every 48,000 babies born each year in the U.S.158
Studies show that newborns treated with higher level of oxygen had more cognitive disabilities than those treated with lower oxygen.159
159.

Sun SC. Relation of target SpO2 levels and clinical outcome in ELBW infants on supplemental oxygen. Pediatr Res (2002) 51:A350.

Prevention or minimization of harm through adherence to evidence-based practice guidelines is the best defense against patient harm and malpractice claims.160
160.

Perinatal Safety Intervention Program (PSIP): Design and Development: AHRQ’s 2012 Annual Conference Slide Presentation. December 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. https://archive.ahrq.gov/news/events/conference/2012/track_a/106_hendrich_kamerow/kamerow.html

Birth-associated adverse outcomes result in 2-10% or approximately 80-400,000 cases annually, half of which are preventable.161
161.

Perinatal Safety Intervention Program (PSIP): Design and Development: AHRQ’s 2012 Annual Conference Slide Presentation. December 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. https://archive.ahrq.gov/news/events/conference/2012/track_a/106_hendrich_kamerow/kamerow.html

30-40% of birth-associated adverse outcomes or “near misses” may be preventable through changes in patient, health care provider, and system factors.162
162.

Perinatal Safety Intervention Program (PSIP): Design and Development: AHRQ’s 2012 Annual Conference Slide Presentation. December 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. https://archive.ahrq.gov/news/events/conference/2012/track_a/106_hendrich_kamerow/kamerow.html

An estimated 80% of serious medical errors involve miscommunication between caregivers during the transfer of patients.163
163.

Clutter—Part, C. (2012). Joint Commission Center for Transforming Healthcare Releases Targeted Solutions Tool for Hand-Off Communications. Joint Commission Perspectives.

Restrictive transfusion strategies can reduce the risk of receiving RBC transfusions by 39%, and are associated with reductions in hospital mortality.164
164.

Carson JL, Carless PA, Hebert PC. Transfusion thresholds and other strategies for guiding allogeneic red blood cell transfusion. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2012, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD002042.

About 0.5% to 3% of all transfusions result in some adverse events.165
165.

Kumar, P., Thapliyal, R., Coshic, P., & Chatterjee, K. (2013). Retrospective evaluation of adverse transfusion reactions following blood product transfusion from a tertiary care hospital: A preliminary step towards hemovigilance. Asian Journal of Transfusion Science, 7(2), 109–115. http://doi.org/10.4103/0973-6247.115564

With 15 million RBC units transfused per year, the estimated risk for death due to hemolysis is 1:1,250,000 or 8 per 10 million RBC units.166
166.

Federowicz I, Barrett BB, Andersen JW, Urashima M, Popovsky MA, Anderson KC. Characterization of reactions after transfusion of cellular blood components that are white cell reduced before storage. Transfusion. 1996;36: 21-8. [PMID: 8607149].

Transfusion-related fatalities due to hemolysis reported to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration averaged 12.5 deaths per year from 2005 to 2010.167
167.

Carson, J. L., Grossman, B., Kleinman, S., Tinmouth, A. T., Marques, M. M., Fung, M. K., … Djulbegovic, B. (2012). Red Blood Cell Transfusion: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the AABB. Annals of Internal Medicine. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-156-12-201206190-00429

Failure to rescue accounts for 60,000 deaths each year in Medicare patients under age 75.168
168.

HealthGrades Quality Study. (2004, July). Patient safety in American hospitals. Retrieved from: http://www.providersedge.com/ehdocs/ehr_articles/Patient_Safety_in_American_Hospitals-2004.pdf

Incidence rate of failure to rescue is 8-16.9%.169
169.

Johnston, M.J. et al. (2015, April). A systematic review to identify the factors that affect failure to rescue and escalation of care in surgery. Surgery, 157 (4), 752-763. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25794627

The majority of failure to rescue cases on nursing unites are progressive; that education of the nursing staff along with the utilization of those monitoring tools is what is key to the success of being able to identify and immediately intervene before the patient begins to get into trouble.170
170.

Susan Lorenz, DrNP, RN, NEC-BEC, EDAC, Vice President of Patient Care Services and Chief Nursing Officer, Princeton HealthCare System.

68% of all failure-to-rescue deaths occur among surgical inpatients with treatable complications, pressure ulcers, post-operative respiratory failure, and post-operative sepsis.171
171.

Reed and May, HealthGrades Patient Safety in American Hospitals Study, March 2011.

There is 22% of those adverse drug events were preventable, 17.8% could have been identified earlier, and 16.8% could have been mitigated more effectively.172
172.

Joint Commission. (2008). Preventing pediatric medication errors. Sentinel Event Alert, 39, 1-4.

There is an 11.1% of adverse drug events in pediatric patients.173
173.

Joint Commission. (2008). Preventing pediatric medication errors. Sentinel Event Alert, 39, 1-4.

At least 56.7% of pediatric adverse drug events are preventable.174
174.

Kunac, D. L., Kennedy, J., Austin, N., & Reith, D. (2009). Incidence, Preventability, and Impact of Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) and Potential ADEs in Hospitalized Children in New Zealand. Pediatric Drugs, 11(2), 153-160. doi:10.2165/00148581-200911020-00005

The most common types of harmful pediatric medication errors are: Improper dose/quantity (37.5%), omission error (19.9%), unauthorized/wrong drug (13.7%), prescribing error (9.4%), wrong administration technique, wrong time, drug prepared incorrectly, wrong dosage form, and wrong route.175
175.

Joint Commission. (2008). Preventing pediatric medication errors. Sentinel Event Alert, 39, 1-4.

Patients 80 years or older are 5 times more likely to be hospitalized for insulin-related hypoglycemia and errors than those 45 – 64 years of age.176
176.

Geller, A. I., Shehab, N., Lovegrove, M. C., Kegler, S. R., Weidenbach, K. N., Ryan, G. J., & Budnitz, D. S. (2014). National estimates of insulin-related hypoglycemia and errors leading to emergency department visits and hospitalizations. JAMA internal medicine, 174(5), 678-686.

Prevalence of hypoglycemia (serum glucose <70 mg/dL) was reported as 5.7% of all point-of-care blood glucose (BG) tests in a 2009 survey of 575 hospitals.177
177.

Swanson, C., Potter, D., Kongable, G., & Cook, C. (2011). Update on inpatient glycemic control in hospitals in the United States. Endocrine Practice.

Implementation of anti-microbial stewardship is associated with 50% reduction in the odds of developing Clostridium difficile infection and 15.2% decrease in antimicrobial cost per patient-day.178
178.

Malani, A. N., Richards, P. G., Kapila, S., Otto, M. H., Czerwinski, J., & Singal, B. (2013). Clinical and economic outcomes from a community hospital’s antimicrobial stewardship program. American Journal of Infection Control, 41(2), 145-148.

An estimated two million people in the U.S. are infected with antibiotic-resistant organisms each year, leading to 23,000 deaths.179
179.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 Atlanta, GA: CDC;2013.

23% of European Union (EU) citizens claim to have been directly affected by medical errors.180
180.

World Health Organization. Data and statistics. Retrieved from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/patient-safety/data-and-statistics

20-50% of all antibiotics prescribed in U.S. acute care hospitals are either unnecessary or inappropriate.181
181.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Core elements of hospital antibiotic stewardship programs. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/healthcare/implementation/core-elements.html

Evidence on medical errors shows that 50% to 70.2% of such harm can be prevented through comprehensive systematic approaches to patient safety.182
182.

World Health Organization. Data and statistics. Retrieved from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/patient-safety/data-and-statistics

No U.S. standard exists to quantify harm or death due to medical error.183
183.

Donaldson, M. S., Corrigan, J. M., & Kohn, L. T. (Eds.). (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system (Vol. 6). National Academies Press.

Human error has been implicated in nearly 80% of adverse events that occur in complex healthcare systems.184
184.

Palmieri, P. A.; DeLucia, P. R.; Ott, T. E.; Peterson, L. T.; Green, A. (2008). The anatomy and physiology of error in adverse healthcare events. Advances in Health Care Management. 7. pp. 33–68. doi:10.1016/S1474-8231(08)07003-1ISBN 978-1-84663-954-8ISSN 1474-8231.

Medical errors are the third leading cause of death behind heart disease and cancer – more than car accidents, AIDS, and diabetes combined.185,186
185.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016, October 7). Leading Causes of Death. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/deaths.htm

186.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016, December 2). HIV in the United States: At A Glance. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/ataglance.html

Research estimates over 200,000 deaths are attributed to medical errors each year in the United States.187
187.

Donaldson, M. S., Corrigan, J. M., & Kohn, L. T. (Eds.). (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system (Vol. 6). National Academies Press.

Approximately 90% of inpatient medication errors occur at either the ordering or transcribing stage.188
188.

Bates D.W., Cullen D.J., Laird N., Petersen L.A., Small S.D., Servi D., Laffel G., … Edmondson A. Incidence of Adverse Drug Events and Potential Adverse Drug Events Implications for Prevention. JAMA. 1995;274(1):29-34. doi:10.1001/jama.1995.03530010043033.

Medication errors harm at least 1.5 million people every year.189
189.

Medication Errors Injure 1.5 Million People and Cost Billions of Dollars Annually. (2006). The National Academics of Sciences, Engineering, Medicine. Retrieved June 08, 2017, from http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=11623

There has been a 50% decrease in CLABSIs between 2008 and 2014.190
190.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). National and state healthcare associated infections progress report. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

CLABSIs result annually in: 84,551 to 203,916 preventable infections, 10,426 to 25,145 preventable deaths, and $1.7 to $21.4 billion avoidable costs191
191.

Agency for Health Research and Quality. Appendix 2. Central line-associated bloodstream infections fact sheet. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/education.curriculum-tools/clabsitools/clabsitoolsap2.html

An estimated 250,000-500,000 CLABSIs occur in U.S. hospitals each year.192
192.

Medscape. Advances in Central Line Insertion and Care: Skin Antisepsis for Prevention and Control of Catheter-Related and Surgical Site Infections.

Increased cost (the non-inflation-adjusted attributable cost) of CLABSIs have been found to vary from $3,700 to $39,000 per episode.193
193.

Marschall, J., Mermel, L., Fakih, M., Hadaway, L., Kallen, A., O’Grady, N., . . . Yokoe, D. (2014). Strategies to Prevent Central Line–Associated Bloodstream Infections in Acute Care Hospitals: 2014 Update. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 35(7), 753-771. doi:10.1086/676533.

In the United States, approximately 250,000 CLABSIs are estimated to occur each year, associated with a death rate of 12-25% and extended hospital stays, at a cost of up to $56,000 per infection.194
194.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-Related Infections.

29,000 people who were initially diagnosed with CDI died within 30 days.195
195.

Lessa, F. C., Mu, Y., Bamberg, W. M., Beldavs, Z. G., Dumyati, G. K., Dunn, J. R. … McDonald, L. C. (2015). Burden of Clostridium difficile Infection in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine,372, 825-834. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1408913.

In 2011, CDI was estimated to cause almost half a million infections in the United States.196
196.

Lessa, F. C., Mu, Y., Bamberg, W. M., Beldavs, Z. G., Dumyati, G. K., Dunn, J. R. … McDonald, L. C. (2015). Burden of Clostridium difficile Infection in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine,372, 825-834. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1408913.

Clostridum difficile infection accounts for 15-25% of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.197
197.

DePestel, D. D., & Aronoff, D. M. (2013). Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile Infection. Journal of Pharmacy Practice26(5), 464–475. http://doi.org/10.1177/0897190013499521

VAP increases patient time in the ICU by 4 to 6 days.198
198.

Halyard Health. Ventilator Associated Pneumonia. Retrieved from: http://www.halyardhealth.com/hai-watch/hai-threats-solutions/ventilator-associated-pneumonia.aspx

VAP is the most common and deadly healthcare-associated infection, affecting up to 28% of ventilated patients.199
199.

Kalanuria, A. A., Zai, W., & Mirski, M. (2014). Ventilator-associated pneumonia in the ICU. Critical Care18(2), 208. http://doi.org/10.1186/cc13775

Costs due to SSIs can reach up to $10 billion annually.200
200.

Perencevich, E. N., Sands, K. E., Cosgrove, S. E., Guadagnoli, E., Meara, E., & Platt, R. (2003). Health and Economic Impact of Surgical Site Infections Diagnosed after Hospital Discharge. Emerging Infectious Diseases9(2), 196–203. http://doi.org/10.3201/eid0902.020232

Length of hospital stay can result in 7-10 additional postoperative hospital days due to an SSI.201
201.

Kaye, K. S., Anderson, D. J., Sloane, R., Chen, L. F., Choi, Y., Link, K., … Schmader, K. E. (2009). The Impact of Surgical Site Infection on Older Operative Patients. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society57(1), 46–54. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2008.02053.x

Continuous monitoring in post-surgical patients was shown to reduce ICU transfers by 48% and rapid response activations by 65% – with no deaths or brain damage over a five year period.202
202.

Through Movement (Rep.). (2017). Retrieved http://www.masimo.com/globalassets/image/homepage/masimo_annual_report_2016_international.pdf

Surgical site infections occur in 2-5% of patients undergoing inpatient surgery.203
203.

Anderson, D. J., Podgorny, K., Berríos-Torres, S. I., Bratzler, D. W., Dellinger, E. P., Greene, L., … & Kaye, K. S. (2014). Strategies to prevent surgical site infections in acute care hospitals: 2014 update. Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, 35(06), 605-627.

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common nosocomial infection, accounting for up to 40% of infections reported by acute care hospitals.204
204.

Saint, S., Kowalski, C. P., Kaufman, S. R., Hofer, T. P., Kauffman, C. A., Olmsted, R. N., … & Krein, S. L. (2008). Preventing hospital-acquired urinary tract infection in the United States: a national study. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 46(2), 243-250.

There are an estimated 13,000 deaths annually attributable to CAUTIs.205
205.

Gould, C. (2010). Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) toolkit. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.

Patients hospitalized for MRSA have longer hospital stays and are more likely to die than patients who do not have MRSA.206
206.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). (2011). Healthcare-Associated Infections. Retrieved from www.ahrq.gov/qual/hais.htm.

Several studies have demonstrated that handwashing virtually eradicates the carriage of MRSA which invariably occurs on the hands of Health Care Practitioners working in ICUs.207
207.

Mathur, P. (2011). Hand hygiene: Back to the basics of infection control. The Indian Journal of Medical Research134(5), 611–620. http://doi.org/10.4103/0971-5916.90985.

Proper hand hygiene is the single most important, simplest, and least expensive means of reducing the prevalence of HAIs and the spread of antimicrobial resistance.208
208.

Mathur, P. (2011). Hand hygiene: Back to the basics of infection control. The Indian Journal of Medical Research134(5), 611–620. http://doi.org/10.4103/0971-5916.90985

HAIs declined 17% from 2010 to 2013.209
209.

Efforts To Improve Patient Safety Result in 1.3 Million Fewer Patient Harms. Content last reviewed November 2015. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/professionals/quality-patient-safety/pfp/interimhacrate2013.html

Infections associated with health care affect an estimated 1 in 20 hospital patients on average every year (estimated at 4.1 million patients).210
210.

World Health Organization. Data and statistics. Retrieved from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/Health-systems/patient-safety/data-and-statistics

1 out of every 25 hospitalized patients in the U.S. contracts an HAI during their stay.211
211.

Healthcare-associated Infections. (2016). Retrieved June 08, 2017, from https://www.cdc.gov/hai/surveillance/

Approximately 1 to 3 out of every 100 patients who have surgery develop infections.212
212.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Healthcare-associated Infections. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hai/ssi/faq_ssi.html

HAIs cost hospitals approximately $9.8 billion every year.213
213.

Gregory, A., Chami, E., & Pietsch, J. (2016). Emotional motivators: Using visual triggers as an infection control intervention to increase hand hygiene compliance throughout the hospital. American Journal of Infection Control, 44(6), S3.

More than 700,000 HAIs occur annually in the United States.214
214.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Preventing Healthcare-Associated Infections. Retrieved https://www.cdc.gov/washington/~cdcatWork/pdf/infections.pdf

An estimated 1.7 million healthcare-associated infections occur each year leading to 99,000 deaths.215
215.

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (n.d.). Preventing Healthcare-Associated Infections. Retrieved https://www.cdc.gov/washington/~cdcatWork/pdf/infections.pdf

“Leadership matters, and so, I think you have to have board and executive leadership that cares as much about clinical outcomes, as financial outcomes.”216
216.

Steven C. Moreau, President and Chief Executive Officer, St. Joseph Hospital

Limited health literacy skills are associated with an increase in preventable hospital visits and admissions.217
217.

Baker DW, Parker RM, Williams MV, Clark WS. 1997. The relationship of patient reading ability to self-reported health and use of health services. American Journal of Public Health. 87(6): 1027-1030.

Hospital departments where staff have more positive patient safety culture perceptions have less adverse events.218
218.

Najjar, S., Nafouri, N., Vanhaecht, K., & Euwema, M. (2015). The relationship between patient safety culture and adverse events: A study in Palestinian hospitals. Safety in Health, 1(1), 1.

Public health education and advocacy initiatives, such as anti-tobacco and cancer awareness campaigns, totaled an estimated $77.9 billion in 2013, less than 3% of total health spending.219
219.

Dieleman, J. L., Baral, R., Birger, M., Bui, A. L., Bulchis, A., Chapin, A., … & Lavado, R. (2016). US spending on personal health care and public health, 1996-2013. JAMA, 316(24), 2627-2646.

By 2020, non-communicable diseases are expected to account for 7 out of 10 deaths in developing regions.220
220.

Boutayeb, A., & Boutayeb, S. (2005). The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. International Journal for Equity in Health, 4(1), 1.

Unsafe surgery is the third leading cause of death globally.221
221.

Nadmin, P. O. (2015, June 22). Unsafe surgery and anaesethesia lead to third of all deaths. Retrieved December 22, 2016, from http://www.opnews.com/2015/06/safe-surgery-anaesethesia-third-deaths/11529

2010 research claims that 17 million people die per year due to lack of access to affordable safety surgery.222
222.

Millions dying due to lack of access to affordable and safe surgery: report. (2015, April 26). Retrieved December 22, 2016, from http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2015/s4224506.htm

The United States spends more on health care annually than any other country yet ranks only 36th in the world for life expectancy.223
223.

World Health Organization. (2000). WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION ASSESSES THE WORLD’S HEALTH SYSTEMS.(cited 2010 June 8).

Did you know? No U.S. standard exists to quantify harm or death due to medical error.224
224.

Donaldson, M. S., Corrigan, J. M., & Kohn, L. T. (Eds.). (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system(Vol. 6). National Academies Press.

Human error has been implicated in nearly 80% of adverse events that occur in complex healthcare systems.225
225.

Palmieri, P. A.; DeLucia, P. R.; Ott, T. E.; Peterson, L. T.; Green, A. (2008). The anatomy and physiology of error in averse healthcare events. Advances in Health Care Management. 7. pp. 33–68. doi:10.1016/S1474-8231(08)07003-1ISBN 978-1-84663-954-8ISSN 1474-8231

Medical errors are the THIRD leading cause of death behind heart disease and cancer – More than car accidents, AIDS & diabetes combined.226,227
226.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016, October 7). Leading Causes of Death. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm

227.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016, December 2). HIV in the United States: At A Glance. Retrieved from:
https://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/ataglance.html

Research estimates over 200,000 deaths are attributed to medical errors each year in the United States.228
228.

Donaldson, M. S., Corrigan, J. M., & Kohn, L. T. (Eds.). (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system (Vol. 6). National Academies Press.